Mobile Computing

Mobile computing is human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage. Mobile computing involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. Communication issues include ad-hoc and infrastructure networks as well as communication properties, protocols, data formats and concrete technologies. Hardware includes mobile devices or device components. Mobile software deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications.

Mobile computing is "taking a computer and all necessary files and software out into the field."[1]

"Mobile computing: being able to use a computing device even when being mobile and therefore changing location. Portability is one aspect of mobile computing."[2]

"Mobile computing is the ability to use computing capability without a pre-defined location and/or connection to a network to publish and/or subscribe to information." Uwe Vieille, ACM.org/

Many types of mobile computers have been introduced since the 1990s including the:

Many commercial and government field forces deploy a ruggedized portable computer with their fleet of vehicles. This requires the units to be anchored to the vehicle for driver safety, device security, and ergonomics. Rugged computers are rated for severe vibration associated with large service vehicles and off-road driving and the harsh environmental conditions of constant professional use such as in emergency medical services, fire, and public safety.

Several specialized manufacturers such as First Mobile Technologies, National Products Inc (Ram Mounts), Gamber Johnson and LedCo build mounts for vehicle mounting of computer equipment for a wide range of vehicles. The mounts are built to withstand the harsh conditions and maintain ergonomics.

Specialized installation companies design the mount design, assembling the parts, and installing them in a safe and consistent manner away from airbags, vehicle HVAC controls, and driver controls. Frequently installations will include a WWAN modem, power conditioning equipment, transceiver antennae mounted external to the vehicle, and WWAN/WLAN/GPS/etc.

Mobile security or mobile phone security has become increasingly important in mobile computing. It is of particular concern as it relates to the security of personal information now stored on the smartphone.

More and more users and businesses use smartphones as communication tools but also as a means of planning and organizing their work and private life. Within companies, these technologies are causing profound changes in the organization of information systems and therefore they have become the source of new risks. Indeed, smartphones collect and compile an increasing amount of sensitive information to which access must be controlled to protect the privacy of the user and the intellectual property of the company.

All smartphones, as computers, are preferred targets of attacks. These attacks exploit weaknesses related to smartphones that can come from means of communication like SMS, MMS, wifi networks, and GSM. There are also attacks that exploit software vulnerabilities from both the web browser and operating system. Finally, there are forms of malicious software that rely on the weak knowledge of average users.

Different security counter-measures are being developed and applied to smartphones, from security in different layers of software to the dissemination of information to end users. There are good practices to be observed at all levels, from design to use, through the development of operating systems, software layers, and downloadable apps.

Several categories of portable computing devices can run on batteries but are not usually classified as laptops: portable computers, keyboardless tablet PCs, Internet tablets, PDAs, ultra mobile PCs (UMPCs) and smartphones.le computer]] is a general-purpose computer that can be easily moved from place to place, but cannot be used while in transit, usually because it requires some "setting-up" and an AC power source. The most famous example is the Osborne 1. Portable computers are also called a "transportable" or a "luggable" PC.

Wireless data connections used in mobile computing take three general forms.[8] Cellular data service uses technologies such as GSM, CDMA or GPRS, and more recently 3G networks such as W-CDMA, EDGE or CDMA2000.[9][10] These networks are usually available within range of commercial cell towers. Wi-Fi connections offer higher performance,[11] may be either on a private business network or accessed through public hotspots, and have a typical range of 100 feet indoors and up to 1000 feet outdoors.[12] Satellite Internet access covers areas where cellular and Wi-Fi are not available[13] and may be set up anywhere the user has a line of sight to the satellites location,[14] which for satellites in geostationary orbit means having an unobstructed view of the southern sky.